According to the International Wine Institute, Italy makes more than 20% of the world’s wine grapes every year. At least 377 (28 percent) of the 1368 grape varieties used to make wine worldwide come from Italy. Biodiversity spreads across twenty regions, and 110 provinces are the result of millennia of commerce, invasions, colonization, hybridization, and evolution over a long time. Around 500 different grapes are thought to be grown on the peninsula. Tuscany has a landscape that is made up of 35% mountains and 40% flat hills. This is because of how isolated the people are both geographically and socially. They have solid regionalist tendencies, dialects, and a strong sense of local allegiance.
Italy’s wine industry boasts a dizzying array of designations, including 77 Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) and 330 Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC), as well as numerous Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) and the newly added Menzioni Geografiche Aggiuntivi (MGA). With 77 Denominazione di Origine Controllata and 79 other names, this is the largest group.
The following is a list of the most important grapes, producers, DOCGs, DOCs, and wines to look for in each of the twenty Italian provinces. As a primer and easy-to-use guide to the world of Italian wine, this is a must-have resource.
People in Italy live in the Val d’Aosta, an extensive mountain range.
People who live in the Val d’Aosta region in the northwest corner of Italy know it for its ski resorts in the Alps, close to the Swiss-French border and near the Matterhorn and Mont Blanc. Val d’Aosta also has the Val d’Aosta International Airport, a place where people can go. You can find Prie Blanc grape plants as high as 3500 feet above sea level in the Val D’Aosta region of the Aosta Valley. This is the country’s most isolated area. There are less than 500 hectares of vineyards in Italy’s smallest grape-growing region.
Having been making wine since the Roman era, many producers have found that working together is better than growing their own grapes in this area on their own. There have been a lot of small, family-run vineyards joining together over the years to form joint winemaking businesses called cooperatives. Italy’s wine-growing regions are divided into three groups: Alta (Morgex), Media (Aosta), and Bassas. Each group has its own name (Donnas). Rivers flow through the valley, which is 90 kilometers long. Cave Mont Blanc is the largest winery in the area, but it only makes about 140 thousand bottles of wine each year.
People in the northwest part of Italy call Nebbiolo the “King of Wines.” It grows in Piemonte, which is in the country. Nebbiolo is made in small amounts in Piemonte. Monfortino, made by Giacomo Conterno, is Italy’s most expensive wine, with a bottle costing about $1000. The word “Bas-Ruel,” which means “low place,” comes from the Celtic word “Bas-Ruel.” It is what led to the Freisa, Neretta, and Vespolina types. Nebbiolo’s wine has a ruby or garnet color, red fruit flavors, floral aromas, savory aromas, strawberry, orange peel, roses, and lavender scents. It also has a lot of tannins. Nebbiolo wines have a lot of tannins, acidity, alcohol, and a light body, which makes them suitable for aging.
Many beautiful and expensive lakes in Lombardy, including the Lago Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, and Lake Garda. The names refer to the five most important Nebbiolo vineyards in the Valtellina area. These lakes are all in the region of Lombardy, which is near the foothills of the Alps. Nebbiolo vineyards in the Valtellina are called Sassella, Inferno, Grumello, Valgella, and Maroggia.
The wines of Franciacorta in Lombardy are famous because the DOCG has set the strictest rules for traditional wine production anywhere in the world. In the 1950s, the modern sparkling wines of Franciacorta were made for the very first time. In 1967, the area was officially named a DOC. There were a lot of Chardonnay producers in the region in the 1980s, and this trend hasn’t changed since. Since 1995, the DOCG has grown to include 80 percent Chardonnay grapes, 15 percent Pinot Nero grapes, and 5 percent Pinot Bianco grapes, with a small amount of Erbamat planted as a way to protect against climate change.
Liguria is a region of Italy in the northwest part of the country and has a lot of lands. The Cinque Terre, a group of five beautiful seaside towns on the coast of the Ligurian Sea, is the most popular thing to do in the area. People may have named a popular white wine varietal, Vernaccia, after one of the villages. Favorita is the grape’s name that grows in this part of the country. Vernazza is one of the villages.
One of Italy’s three main regions of central Italy is called Emilia-Romagna. It is located in northern Italy and has been linked to Lombardy and the city of Milan for many years. The area is split into two parts: Emilia is on the west side of Bologna, and Romagna is on the east and south of Bologna. Wine is a big business in Emilia. Besides food and wine, the region is a prominent exporter of farm goods. Fashion and accessory brands like La Perla, Furla, and Max Mara are well-known around the world, as well as Lambrusco, Modena Balsamic Vinegar, Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese from Parma, tortelloni, and other regional specialties like Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese from Parma.
Between Verona and Venice, the northeastern part of Italy has become the country’s best place to grow wine. This is mainly because more Prosecco is being made. An important point to note is that 70% of the wine produced in Veneto is of the “DOP” quality.
Most people know about Tuscany because of Florence, a famous Renaissance city, and Chianti wine, a favorite around the world. Sangiovese is the most important grape variety in the area, and it has a long and rich history. Records from the past say that Chianti was first mentioned in 1398. As far as the de Medici botanical archives go, the plant Sangioveto was mentioned for the first time in 1552. Blood of Jupiter or Jove is what this name means because of its color. A group called the Chianti Classico Consorzio was set up in 1924 with the help of 33 founding members. Its goal was to keep the wine from the region of Tuscany sound. There was a type of sharecropping called Mezzadria that put quantity above quality. It came to an end in the 1960s.
Rome’s wine is made in Lazio, where the Latifundia live, or wealthy landowners bought the land because of a war. Lazio is also the place where the Roman Empire began. The Castelli Romani, which is in the region of Lazio to the southeast of Rome, are well-known. Nowhere else in Italy does the Malvasia Bianca di Candia grape grow as much land as it does in this region. It is essential and smells excellent. Aromatic, simple, and cheap wines are made by this grape, which is praised for its high yields, which are in high demand by the people in the area.
History shows that Umbria, Italy’s only landlocked area, has been close to the Romans for a long time. The landscape of the region is mainly made up of hills (65%), mountains (30%), and flatlands (20%). (7 percent). Orvieto is a wine region that is close to Lazio. It makes a good wine blend with Grechetto di Orvieto and Grechetto Todi grapes. Grechetto di Orvieto is a white wine grape related to the Trebbiano grape family, but it’s not clear. Orvieto is in the area around Rome (aka Pignoletto in Emilia Romagna and aka Grechetto Gentile). There are white flowers, chamomile, and lemon-lime notes in the wine. It has a lot of acids and is simple to drink.
The wine made here on the Adriatic coast was very popular with the ancient Romans. The fortified Castelli was built to protect the empire’s northern border in the northeast. Following the fall of Rome, farming in the region took a big hit. Because Federico II was born in Jesi, the Castelli of Jesi was built. 30 percent of the Marche’s topography is mountains, which make up 30 percent of the land. The rest is hilly and coastal, with the mountains making up 60 percent of the land.
Abruzzo is thought to be the greenest place in Italy or even Europe. Most of Abruzzo’s land is made up of mountains. Hilly terrain makes up 34% of the land, and flatlands make up 1%. A large part of Abruzzo is in a national park. 8 percent of Italy’s grapes are grown there, but only 2 percent of the country’s wine comes from this area. This is because a lot of bulk wine is sent to other countries. Chieti is home to many of Italy’s largest cooperative wineries. This is because many of them are in Chieti.
One of the most essential DOCGs in Basilicata is Aglianico del Vulture Superiore, a red wine made from grapes grown in the area. Aglianico del Vulture is also a protected name for a wine. Winemaker Vulture makes Aglianico that smells and tastes like natural fruit. Vulture Mountain is named for the shape of the seven summits. They look like the wings of a vulture. Vulture Mountain is a popular place to go hiking in the area.
Since the Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans all bought and sold wine from Campania and the island of Ischia, it has been an important place in wine history. In his book Natural History, Pliny the Elder talks about Falernum’s wine, which he thinks came from Campania. Campania’s landscape is constantly changing. There are many beautiful places in Campania, but they are mostly known for the Amalfi Coast and the beach resorts near Naples. When it comes to the weather, the area to the northeast of Naples, toward Avellino and Irpinia, is much more relaxed than the coast. The Camapania mountains, which are higher altitudes, don’t get very much snow very often.
Puglia is a region of Italy called the “heel of the boot.” I think it is one of Italy’s most prosperous and fertile places. It is also one of Italy’s sunniest and warmest parts, with Sicily coming in second in temperature. Puglia has the second-largest area of vineyards in Italy, and it makes the most wine. Puglia is known as the “breadbasket” of Italy and Europe because it has 800 kilometers of coastline and a massive land area that is primarily flat.
There are more vineyards in Sicily than anywhere else in Italy. Because only 2% of the wine made is of DOC quality, and only 5% of the total wine made is bottled. A lot of the wine produced is sold in bulk or used to make table grapes or alcohol. Archaeological evidence of winemaking can be found in Sicily as far back as 12,000 years ago. By 750 B.C., Sicily had three Phoenician colonies and twelve Greek colonies. The Romans then came and took over the land. Angwin’s were groups that invaded Sicily in the following centuries. The Vandals, Goths, Byzantines, Saracens, Normans, Normans, Germans, Spaniards, and Austrians were also there.
Oenotria was the name of the land where Calabria now stands. It was named after the Greek monarch Oenotro around 1500 B.C. Calabria was the wealthiest place in Italy for more than a thousand years. Because it was once wealthy, it is now the second poorest region in Italy, only behind Basilicata, which was once prosperous. Librandi is a winemaker who started making high-quality wine again in the area. Calabria doesn’t make any wines that are called DOCG. Greco Bianco, the same as Malvasia di Lipari, and Galioppo are the two most important grape varieties grown in Calabria in Italy ( a child of Sangiovese and Mantonico). Genetically, Galioppo shares a lot of things with Nerello Mascalese, Frappato, and Susumaniello. They are all related to each other, too.